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    If this deposit ever produces clean material, the market will surely take notice. Rubies on matrix , 1. Nepal is a relatively new source of rubies.

    A goat herder discovered ruby in the mountains in the s. The clarity of Nepalese ruby is usually low to mid-commercial, although gemmy crystals do exist.

    Typically, Nepalese crystals weigh 5 carats or less and have heavy color zoning, from pure red to pinkish-purplish red. Vietnam had significant discoveries north of Hanoi in and in Luc Yen in Between November and March , one Vietnamese deposit produced more than 3 million carats of ruby and pink sapphire.

    Word spread quickly in the trade that the color of the finest material was comparable with that from Myanmar. However, unlike the Mogok material, the clarity of Vietnamese ruby is mostly lower, with few eye-clean gems.

    Like Afghanistan rubies, some Vietnamese rubies have small areas of blue color. The best Vietnamese ruby approaches fine Mogok, but, since the early s, most have tended towards pink.

    Rubies in marble , 7. Please note, these are descriptive terms. Learn more about these misleading names here and consult our List of False or Misleading Gemstone Names.

    Plus, it has no cleavage. These physical properties make ruby a superb jewelry stone. For rubies reasonably clear of inclusions or fractures, no special wear or care precautions are necessary.

    On the other hand, heavily included or fractured rubies have less durability. Consult our gemstone care guide for additional recommendations.

    Ruby and sterling silver forged leafy ring. Photo by Kirsten Skiles. Appraising rubies is a skill every jeweler and gemologist needs to master.

    Learn about the different quality factors that can affect ruby prices. Richard Hughes has been a leading ruby expert for decades. Learn how he got started and his tips for newcomers to the world of rubies.

    A traditional favorite, a ruby engagement ring stone symbolizes love and passion. Learn how to find the gem that best fits your budget and style.

    Read about these eight famous rubies and what makes them special. What ruby and sapphire grading tools does a novice gemologist need?

    Learn how basic gemological equipment can help you identify these popular…. Membership options. Ruby Value, Price, and Jewelry Information.

    Ruby One of the most popular traditional jewelry stones, ruby is exceptionally durable. Ruby Buying Guide.

    See the entire Gem Price Guide. Start an IGS Membership today for full access to our price guide updated monthly. See Plans and Pricing.

    Start Your Gem Education. GG , Joel E. Arem, Ph. See other articles. Appraising Rubies. Eight Famous Rubies. Join IGS today for great benefits!

    Ready to learn how to identify gems on your own? Refractive Index. All varieties of red, from pinkish, purplish, orangey, brownish, to dark red.

    Specific Gravity. Red fluorescence is, however, not diagnostic of country of origin or natural origin. Thai ruby fluoresces weak red in LW, weak or none in SW.

    May have blue over-tint. Heat treated common , fracture-filled occasional , lattice diffusion. Absorption Spectrum. Weaker lines at and Broad absorption of yellow, green, and violet.

    Additional lines seen at The reversible fluorescent doublet is a sensitive test for the presence of chromium in a corundum.

    Even mauve and purple sapphires have a trace of Cr and show these lines. Trace minerals can dampen this effect. From the Latin ruber for red.

    Metamorphosed crystalline limestones and dolomites, as well as other metamorphic rock types such as gneiss and schist. Red spinels may be mistaken for rubies by those lacking experience with gems.

    However, the finest red spinels can have values approaching that of an average ruby. That region has produced some exceptional rubies, however in recent years few good rubies have been found.

    In central Myanmar, the area of Mong Hsu began producing rubies during the s and rapidly became the world's main ruby mining area. The most recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar is in Namya Namyazeik located in the northern state of Kachin.

    Rubies are also mined in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In Pakistani Kashmir there are vast proven reserves of millions of rubies, worth up to half a billion dollars.

    Rubies, as with other gemstones, are graded using criteria known as the four Cs, namely color, cut, clarity and carat weight. Rubies are also evaluated on the basis of their geographic origin.

    Color: In the evaluation of colored gemstones, color is the most important factor. Color divides into three components: hue , saturation and tone.

    Hue refers to color as we normally use the term. Transparent gemstones occur in the pure spectral hues of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet.

    Ruby is defined to be red. All other hues of the gem species corundum are called sapphire. Ruby may exhibit a range of secondary hues, including orange, purple, violet, and pink.

    Improving the quality of gemstones by treating them is common practice. Some treatments are used in almost all cases and are therefore considered acceptable.

    During the late s, a large supply of low-cost materials caused a sudden surge in supply of heat-treated rubies, leading to a downward pressure on ruby prices.

    Improvements used include color alteration, improving transparency by dissolving rutile inclusions, healing of fractures cracks or even completely filling them.

    The most common treatment is the application of heat. Most rubies at the lower end of the market are heat treated to improve color, remove purple tinge , blue patches, and silk.

    The silk is partially broken, and the color is improved. Another treatment, which has become more frequent in recent years, is lead glass filling.

    Filling the fractures inside the ruby with lead glass or a similar material dramatically improves the transparency of the stone, making previously unsuitable rubies fit for applications in jewelry.

    If a color needs to be added, the glass powder can be "enhanced" with copper or other metal oxides as well as elements such as sodium, calcium, potassium etc.

    The second heating process can be repeated three to four times, even applying different mixtures. In , Gaudin made the first synthetic rubies by fusing potash alum at a high temperature with a little chromium as a pigment.

    In , Ebelmen made white sapphire by fusing alumina in boric acid. In , Verneuil announced he could produce synthetic rubies on a commercial scale using this flame fusion process, later also known as the Verneuil process.

    Other processes in which synthetic rubies can be produced are through Czochralski's pulling process , flux process, and the hydrothermal process.

    Most synthetic rubies originate from flame fusion, due to the low costs involved. Synthetic rubies may have no imperfections visible to the naked eye but magnification may reveal curved striae and gas bubbles.

    The fewer the number and the less obvious the imperfections, the more valuable the ruby is; unless there are no imperfections i.

    Dopants are added to some manufactured rubies so they can be identified as synthetic, but most need gemological testing to determine their origin.

    Synthetic rubies have technological uses as well as gemological ones. Rods of synthetic ruby are used to make ruby lasers and masers.

    The first working laser was made by Theodore H. Maiman in Ruby lasers are still in use. Rubies are also used in applications where high hardness is required such as at wear-exposed locations in modern mechanical clockworks, or as scanning probe tips in a coordinate measuring machine.

    Imitation rubies are also marketed. Red spinels , red garnets , and colored glass have been falsely claimed to be rubies.

    Imitations go back to Roman times and already in the 17th century techniques were developed to color foil red—by burning scarlet wool in the bottom part of the furnace—which was then placed under the imitation stone.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Variety of corundum, mineral, gemstone. This article is about the mineral or gem. For other uses, see Ruby disambiguation.

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